APPLICATION NOTES

The following applications notes are available for download. Please contact us should you require any further information. For sample analysis inquiries please contact us at calo@ddsystems.co.za


FUEL OILS

These application notes focus on burning a fuel oil that does not evaporate at room temperature and does not spontaneously combust at room temperature at a pressure of 3 MPA. The calorific value (CV) of most liquid oils can be determined in exactly the same way as solids e.g. coal, i.e. by placing the sample in a pressurized bomb vessel, igniting the sample and measuring the released heat in a controlled environment.

C1.1 Fuel Oil used in Brick Making - Part 1 - Sample Used - Fuel Oil in Brick Making

These application notes focus on burning a fuel oil that evaporates or spontaneously ignites with increased pressure.

C1.1 Fuel Oil used in Brick Making - Part 2 - Sample Used - Fuel Oil used in Brick Making

Fuel Oil - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Fuel Oil - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Fuel Oil - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Fuel Oil - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Fuel Oil - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters

AVIATION FUEL

These application notes focus on burning aviation fuel that evaporates or spontaneously ignites with increased pressure.

C1.1 Fuel Oil - Aviation Fuel - Sample Used : Aviation Fuel

AMMUNITION

These application notes focus on a material that generates its own oxygen in combustion, i.e. it does not require oxygen in the atmosphere to sustain combustion. The propellant cannot be ignited in the same manner as coal samples because the oxygen is replaced by nitrogen that prevents the cotton from burning. Consequently the firing wire must be extended so that it can touch the sample and the firing voltage must be increased. The test sample had a very low CV so the mass was increased to 2 gram so as to obtain a significant temperature rise of the vessel.

C1.2 Ammunition Munitions Propellants - Sample Used - Munition Propellants

COAL

Determining the calorific value (CV) of coal is the most widespread use of the calorimeter. The CV value of coal is used as one of the parameters for determining the quality of coal.

C1.3 Coal - Sample 1733 - Local Coal - Sample Used : Local Coal
C1.3 Coal - Sample 9674 - Local Coal - Sample Used : Local Coal
C1.3 Coal - Sample 9997 - Local Coal - Sample Used : Local Coal

Coal - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Coal - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Coal - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Coal - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Coal - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters

FOOD & NUTRITION

Many institutions are doing research and development on food. The aim is to improve the nutritional value of the food. The parameters may be to compare different foods or different manufacturers or to genetically improve the food. Other aspects may be to improve the digestion and energy absorption of animal feeds.

Part of the research involves determining the calorific value of the food. The calorific value of a particular food is the same as the energy content of that food.

The food can be for either human or animal consumption.

Institutions performing this type of research include : Animal and Dairy Research, Department of Agriculture, Department of Animal Sciences, Universities, and Educational Institutions, Government or private food industries.

C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Local Brown Sugar - Sample Used : Local Brown Sugar
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Local Caramel Sugar - Sample Used : Local Caramel Sugar
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Local Mill Sugar - Sample Used : Local Mill Sugar
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Local Treacle Sugar - Sample Used : Local Treacle Sugar
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Local White Sugar - Sample Used : Local White Sugar
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Barley - Sample Used : Barley
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Barley Grain Composite - Sample Used : Barley Grain Composite
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Barley Sillage Composite - Sample Used : Barley Sillage Composite
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Bran Flake Breakfast Cereal - Sample Used : Bran Flake Breakfast Cereal
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Chick Peas - Sample Used : Chick Peas
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Corn Flake Breakfast Cereal - Sample Used : Corn Flake Breakfast Cereal
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - High Fiber Bran Breakfast Cereal - Sample Used : High Fiber Bran Breakfast Cereal
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Lentils - Sample Used : Lentils
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Whole Wheat Biscuit - Sample Used : Whole Wheat Biscuit
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sample A - Potato Chip (Whole) - Sample Used : Potato Chip (Whole)
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sample B - Potato Chip (Whole) - Sample Used : Potato Chip (Whole)
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sample C - Potato Chip (Whole) - Sample Used : Potato Chip (Whole)
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sunflower Kernels (Whole) - Sample Used : Sunflower Kernels (Whole)
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Corn - Sample Used : Corn Dried Distillers Grain Composite (Whole)
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sugar - Sample Used : Illovo N-Ally Brown
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sugar - Sample Used : Illovo N-Ally White
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sugar - Sample Used : Illovo Pongola Brown Sugar
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sugar - Sample Used : Illovo Pongola White Sugar
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sugar - Sample Used : Illovo Umzimkulu Caramel Sugar
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sugar - Sample Used : Illovo Umzimkulu Treacle Sugar
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sugar - Sample Used : Illovo Umzimkulu VHP Sugar
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Cereal - Sample Used : Kellog's All Bran Flakes
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Cereal - Sample Used : Kellog's Corn Flakes
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Cereal - Sample Used : Kellog's High Fibre Bran
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Cereal - Sample Used : Kellog's Nutrific
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Cereal - Sample Used : Kellog's Special K
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Cereal - Sample Used : Kellog's Strawberry Pops
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Cereal - Sample Used : Pronutro Flakes
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Crackers - Sample Used : Provita Wholewheat
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Sugar - Sample Used : Sugar

Food & Nutrition - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Food & Nutrition - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Food & Nutrition - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Food & Nutrition - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Food & Nutrition - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Animal Feed - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Animal Feed - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Animal Feed - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Animal Feed - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Animal Feed - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters

FOOD & NUTRITION : ALTERNATIVE METHOD

Alternative method for calorific measurements of food using a crushed sample placed in a Gelatine Capsule.

C 1.5 - Food & Nutrition - Corn - Sample Used : Corn
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Grinded Noodles - Sample Used : Grinded Noodles
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Malt - Sample Used : Malt
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Rice - Sample Used : Rice
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Rum Extract - Sample Used : Rum Extract
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Tapioca - Sample Used : Tapioca
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Wheat - Sample Used : Wheat
C1.4 Food & Nutrition - Wheat - Sample Used : Wheat Dried Distillers Grain Composite
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample A - Potato Chips (Crushed) - Sample Used : Potato Chips (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample B - Potato Chips (Crushed) - Sample Used : Potato Chips (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample C - Potato Chips (Crushed) - Sample Used : Potato Chips (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sunflower Kernels (Crushed) - Sample Used : Sunflower Kernels (Curshed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Beef Gravy - Sample Used : Beef Gravy (Powder)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Full Cream Milk Powder - Sample Used : Full Cream Milk Powder
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Mushroom Sauce - Sample Used : Mushroom Sauce (Powder)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Uncoloured Soya Mince - Sample Used : Soya Mince Uncoloured
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Custard Mix - Sample Used : Custard Mix (Powder)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Pepper Sauce - Sample Used : Pepper Sauce (Powder)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Maize Meal - Sample Used : Maize Meal (Powder)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Skim Milk - Sample Used : Skim Milk (Powder)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Fish - Sample Used : Dried Fish

Food & Nutrition - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Food & Nutrition - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Food & Nutrition - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Food & Nutrition - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Food & Nutrition - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters

FOOD & NUTRITION : UNIVERSITY APPLICATIONS

The application notes below are samples from a local university - animal science department. Using the alternative method for calorific measurement of animal feed, carcass, faeces, etc. (a crushed sample placed in a gelatine capsule)

C 1.5 - Food & Nutrition - Sample A40 - Feed Wheat Bran - Sample Used : KZN Univeristy A40 Feed Wheat Bran (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample A67 - Feed - Sample Used : KZN University A67 Feed (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample A80F - Chicken Feces - Sample Used : KZN University A80F Chicken feces (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample B47 - Feed Low Protein - Sample Used : KZN University B47 Feed Low Protein (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample B52 - Seeds - Sample Used : KZN University B52 Seeds (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample B97F - Chicken Faeces - Sample Used - KZN University B97F Chicken Faeces (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample C22 - Feed White Maize - Sample Used : KZN University C22 Feed White Maize (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample C23 - Feed Breeder - Sample Used : KZN University C23 Feed Breeder (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample C60 F Chicken Faeces - Sample Used : KZN University C60 F Chicken Faeces
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample C63 F Chicken Faeces - Sample Used : KZN University C63 F Chicken Faeces
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample E420C - Carcass - Sample Used : KZN University E420C Carcass (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample E425C - Carcass - Sample Used : KZN University E435C Carcass (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample E450C - NIYI - Sample Used : KZN University E450C NIYI
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample R77 - Dextrose Monohydrates - Sample Used : KZN University R77 Dextrose Monohydrates (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample S55 - Carcass Meal - Sample Used : KZN University S55 Carcass Meal (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample S55 F - Carcass Meal - Sample Used : KZN University S55 F Carcass Meal (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample T48 - Horse Faeces - Sample Used : KZN University T48 Horse faeces (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample T52 - Sheep Faeces - Sample Used : KZN University T52 Sheep Faeces (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample U5 - Rabbit Faeces - Sample Used : Rabbit Faeces (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Sample Y4 - Feed Pre-Breeder - Sample Used : Feed Pre-Breeder (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - Z26 Rye Grass - Sample Used : Z26 Rye Grass (Crushed)
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - 161C Dog Feces - Sample Used : Stellenbosch University Sample 161C Dog Feces
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - 161D Dog Feces - Sample Used : Stellenbosch University Sample 161D Dog Feces
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - 161E Dog Feces - Sample Used : Stellenbosch University Sample 161E Dog Feces
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - 161F Dog Feces - Sample Used : Stellenbosch University Sample 161F Dog Feces
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - 161G Dog Feces - Sample Used : Stellenbosch University Sample 161G Dog Feces
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - 161H Dog Feces - Sample Used : Stellenbosch University Sample 161H Dog Feces
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - 321A Fish Food - Sample Used : Stellenbosch University Sample 321A Fish Food
C 1.5 Food & Nutrition - DVK324 Sheep Feed - Sample Used : Stellenbosch University Sample DVK324 Sheep Feed

Universities - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Universities - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Universities - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Universities - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Universities - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE

Many institutions are doing research and development on alternative energy sources.

Alternative energy refers to energy sources, which are not based on the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of atoms. The renewed interest in this field comes from the undesirable effects of pollution (as witnessed today) both from burning fossil fuels and from nuclear waste by-products. Fortunately there are many means of harnessing energy, which have less damaging impacts on our environment.

Part of the research involves determining the calorific value (energy content) of the alternative energy source. Institutions performing this type of research include : Universities, Research Facilities, Government and Private Industries.

C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Peat - Sample Used : Dried Peat
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Peat - Sample Used : Dried Peat 2
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Wood Pellets - Sample Used : Wood Pellets
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Wood Sawdust - Sample Used : Wood (Sawdust)
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Wood - Sample Used : Wood
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Wood Chips Dust - Sample Used : Wood Chips (Dust)
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Old Wood - Sample Used : P1 Old Wood (1 month old)
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Old Wood - Sample Used : P2 Old Wood (Chips)
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Fresh Wood - Sample Used : P3 Fresh Wood Zillertal
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - ARA Fritzens - Sample Used : P4 ARA Fritzens
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Wood Pfeifer - Sample Used : P5 Wood Pfeifer
C 1.6 Alternative Energy Source - Waste - Sample Used - P6 Waste Product from Balingen

Alternative Energy Sources - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Alternative Energy Sources - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Alternative Energy Sources - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Alternative Energy Sources - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Alternative Energy Sources - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters

POLYMERS & COMPOSITES

Many institutions are doing research and development on polymers and composites. The research is being done mainly in the automotive industry, whereby dampening and sealing materials are manufactured at the plants. We are not entirely sure of the aim of the analysis of these materials but can conclude that it can be related to the recycling of the materials after use or to determine the calorific value of these materials and their ability to ignite and the safety of these materials.

C 1.7 Polymers & Composites - Sample A - Sample Used : Type of Aluminium
C 1.7 Polymers & Composites - Sample B - Sample Used : Type of Adhesive
C 1.7 Polymers & Composites - Sample C - Sample Used : Type of Adhesive
C 1.7 Polymers & Composites - Sample D - Sample Used : Type of Adhesive
C 1.7 Polymers & Composites - Sample E - Sample Used : Polymer Film
C 1.7 Polymers & Composites - Sample Butyl FR - Sample Used : Adhesive

Polymers & Composites - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Polymers & Composites - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Polymers & Composites - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Polymers & Composites - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Polymers & Composites - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters

COSMETIC PRODUCTS

Many institutions are doing research and development on burning cosmetic products such as liquid hairspray, shampoos, lotions, etc. The reason behind such analysis is to determine the chemical safety characters such as flammability, explosion and others. The reason behind this analysis is for airline inspection and the limitations enforced by the authorities to liquid substances which are allowed on airlines.

C 1.8 Cosmetic Products - Liquid Hairspray - Sample Used : Liquid Hairspray (Non-aerosol type)
C 1.8 Cosmetic Products - Shampoo - Sample Used : Standard off the shelf shampoo