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Application Notes

APPLICATION NOTES

The following bomb calorimeter applications notes are available for download. Please contact us should you require any further information. For sample analysis inquiries please contact us at calo@ddsystems.co.za


FUEL OILS

These bomb calorimeter application notes focus on burning a fuel oil that does not evaporate at room temperature and does not spontaneously combust at room temperature at a pressure of 3 MPA. The calorific value (CV) of most liquid oils can be determined in exactly the same way as solids e.g. coal, i.e. by placing the sample in a pressurized bomb vessel, igniting the sample and measuring the released heat in a controlled environment.

C1.1 Fuel Oils Part 1

These application notes focus on burning a fuel oil that evaporates or spontaneously ignites with increased pressure.

C1.1 Fuel Oils Part 2

Fuel Oil - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Fuel Oil - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Fuel Oil - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Fuel Oil - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Fuel Oil - Bomb Calorimeter Applications

AVIATION FUEL

These bomb calorimeter application notes focus on burning aviation fuel that evaporates or spontaneously ignites with increased pressure.

C1.1 Fuel Oil - Aviation Fuel

AMMUNITION

These bomb calorimeter application notes focus on a material that generates its own oxygen in combustion, i.e. it does not require oxygen in the atmosphere to sustain combustion. The propellant cannot be ignited in the same manner as coal samples because the oxygen is replaced by nitrogen that prevents the cotton from burning. Consequently the firing wire must be extended so that it can touch the sample and the firing voltage must be increased. The test sample had a very low CV so the mass was increased to 2 gram so as to obtain a significant temperature rise of the vessel.

C1.2 Ammunition Munitions Propellants

Coal

Determining the calorific value (CV) of coal is the most widespread use of the calorimeter. The CV value of coal is used as one of the parameters for determining the quality of coal.

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE

Many institutions are doing research and development on alternative energy sources.

Alternative energy refers to energy sources, which are not based on the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of atoms. The renewed interest in this field comes from the undesirable effects of pollution (as witnessed today) both from burning fossil fuels and from nuclear waste by-products. Fortunately there are many means of harnessing energy, which have less damaging impacts on our environment.

Part of the research involves determining the calorific value (energy content) of the alternative energy source. Institutions performing this type of research include : Universities, Research Facilities, Government and Private Industries.

C1.3 Alternative Energy Source, Wood, Peat and Coal

Coal - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Alternative Energy Sources - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Alternative Energy Sources - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Alternative Energy Sources - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Alternative Energy Sources - Bomb Calorimeter Applications

FOOD & NUTRITION

Many institutions are doing research and development on food. The aim is to improve the nutritional value of the food. The parameters may be to compare different foods or different manufacturers or to genetically improve the food. Other aspects may be to improve the digestion and energy absorption of animal feeds.

Part of the research involves determining the calorific value of the food. The calorific value of a particular food is the same as the energy content of that food.

The food can be for either human or animal consumption.

Institutions performing this type of research include : Animal and Dairy Research, Department of Agriculture, Department of Animal Sciences, Universities, and Educational Institutions, Government or private food industries.

C1.4 Sugars
C1.4 Breakfast Cereals
C1.4 Potato Chip
C1.4 Pulses

Food & Nutrition - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Food & Nutrition - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Food & Nutrition - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Food & Nutrition - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Food & Nutrition - Bomb Calorimeter Applications

ANIMAL FEED AND UNIVERSITY APPLICATIONS

The bomb calorimeter application notes below are samples from a local university - animal science department. Using the alternative method for calorific measurement of animal feed, carcass, faeces, etc. (a crushed sample placed in a gelatine capsule)

C1.5 Animal Feed Measurement
C1.5 Animal Faeces Measurement
C1.5 Animal Carcass Measurement

Universities - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Universities - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Universities - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Animal Feed - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Animal Feed - Bomb Calorimeter Applications

POLYMERS & COMPOSITES

Many institutions are doing research and development on polymers and composites. The research is being done mainly in the automotive industry, whereby dampening and sealing materials are manufactured at the plants. We are not entirely sure of the aim of the analysis of these materials but can conclude that it can be related to the recycling of the materials after use or to determine the calorific value of these materials and their ability to ignite and the safety of these materials.

C 1.6 Polymer and Composite Measurement

Polymers & Composites - Application Notes | DDS Calorimeters
Polymers & Composites - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Polymers & Composites - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Polymers & Composites - Bomb Calorimeter Applications
Polymers & Composites - Bomb Calorimeter Applications

COSMETIC PRODUCTS

Many institutions are doing research and development on burning cosmetic products such as liquid hairspray, shampoos, lotions, etc. The reason behind such analysis is to determine the chemical safety characters such as flammability, explosion and others. The reason behind this analysis is for airline inspection and the limitations enforced by the authorities to liquid substances which are allowed on airlines.

C 1.7 Cosmetic Product - Liquid Hairspray
C 1.7 Cosmetic Products - Shampoo

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